Most sources on the internet state that ozonation water treatment dates back to the 1800s. The truth is that ozonation could only take place once electricity was discovered, so ozonation as a water treatment method wasn’t studied until the 1840s.
I will explain two popular ways to produce the ozone needed to treated water: You can 1. pass oxygen through an electrical field to split and reorganize the individual atoms as O3, or 2. You can pass O2 through ultraviolet light for the same effect.
This specific method of water treatment is not cheap, with units running around 200$. It is best for commercial use, pools, and providing large amounts of clean water for a short amount of time. The Water Research Center explains the pros and cons of this method on their webpage. I summed up the advantages and disadvantages in my own words, as ozonation can get pretty complicated.
1. Ozone kills bacteria, viruses, and protozoans. Very strong oxidizing power with a short reaction time.
1. Higher costs. Routine upkeep required.
2. Ozone rapidly dissolves or can bond with other elements in water to create harmful byproducts. Essentially, you have to know what’s in the water first to make sure your end result is the right thing.
For more info: WaterCheck.com